Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are commonly used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, have also been found to prevent cancer. (±)(R,S) Etodolac is an NSAID that belongs to the class of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Various derivatives of etodolac are synthesized to boost its anti-proliferative action and lessen its potential negative effects. In our earlier studies, some novel derivatives of etodolac exhibited stronger cytotoxic effects on prostate cell lines and had similar effects on leukemia cells in pre-screening experiments.
Objective: Using the K562 leukemia cell line as a model, we sought to investigate the anti-cancer properties of a hydrazide-hydrazone derivative (SGK-205) and a 4-thiazolidinone derivative of etodolac (SGK- 216).
Materials and Methods: In the current investigation, SGK-205 and SGK-216 compounds were administered to K562 cells for 24 and 48 hours at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μM. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT test, and apoptosis by Annexin V-PI staining and mitochondrial membrane potential assays, together with mRNA expressions of apoptotic proteins. The levels of the proteins, HER2 and COX2, were also examined to evaluate COX2 inhibitory capacity.
Results: In K562 cells, there was a definite dose-dependent response to SGK-205 and SGK-216 compounds. Results from MTT viability tests, together with mitochondrial membrane potential measurements and Annexin V-PI staining, revealed that SGK-216 and SGK-205 significantly outperformed etodolac in terms of their apoptotic and anti-proliferative activities. The concentration range of 10-20 μM for both chemicals was sufficient to start biological responses. Apoptosis was also investigated through the expressions of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, gene expression research demonstrated SGK- 205 to be a beneficial substitute to etodolac in lowering COX-2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor- 2 (HER2) expression.
Conclusion: Our data indicated both derivatives to have higher anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects compared to etodolac. An overall assessment highlighting apoptotic induction potential, acceptable toxicity levels, a consistent dose-response relationship, and COX2 inhibitory actions, in particular, indicated SGK-205 as a viable novel therapeutic.