Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key mediator of vascular diseases, is linked to methylglyoxal (MGO) formation, a by-product of glucose metabolism implicated in vascular complications. The glyoxalase system, consisting of glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) and reduced glutathione (GSH), is responsible for detoxifying MGO. This study investigated the effect of Ang II on Glo1 activity and expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Primary VSMCs were isolated from rat aortas and exposed to Ang II under standard or high glucose conditions. We examined Glo1 activity, expression, intracellular GSH, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1) levels. We also analyzed the expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as potential regulators of Glo1 expression. The results demonstrated that Ang II reduced Glo1 activity, expression, and GSH levels while increasing MG-H1 levels in VSMCs. Telmisartan and irbesartan, AT1R blockers, restored Glo1 activity, expression, and GSH levels and alleviated MG-H1 levels. Treatment with AT1R blockers or inhibitors targeting signaling pathways involved in Ang II-induced responses mitigated these effects. High glucose exacerbated the reduction in Glo1 activity and expression. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that Ang II reduces Glo1 activity and expression in VSMCs, which may contribute to developing vascular complications in diabetes. AT1R blockers and inhibitors targeting specific signaling pathways show potential in restoring Glo1 function and mitigating MGO-associated damage. These findings highlight the complex interactions between RAS, MGO, and vascular diseases, highlighting potential therapeutic targets for diabetic vascular complications.