BACKGROUND: To examine the effects of adropin on glucose and lipid metabolism in a rat model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: T2DM were established using high-fat diet and streptozocin (STZ; 35 mg/kg/b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats were randomly treated with adropin (2.1 μg/kg/day intraperitonealy) for 10 days. The study involved the evaluation of biochemical parameters, including blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities. Additionally, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA gene expressions in pancreas tissue were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The serum levels of insulin and adropin were determined by ELISA. Treatment with adropin showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels, HbA1c (%), HOMA-IR and increase in HOMA-β, serum insulin levels. In addition, intraperitoneal adropin application can reduce serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and increase level of HDL-C. Adropin also effectively ameliorated the alterations in TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that the adropin possesses antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effects in T2DM.