in: Infections and Sepsis Development, Vincenzo Neri,Lixing Huang,Jie Li, Editor, IntechOpen, London, pp.71-94, 2027
Sepsis, as a complex entity, comprises multiple pathophysiological mechanisms which bring about high morbidity and mortality. The previous studies showed that the gastrointestinal tract is damaged during sepsis, and its main symptoms include increased permeability, bacterial translocation (BT), and malabsorption. BT is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria via the gut mucosa to other tissues. It occurs in pathological conditions such as disruption of the intestine’s ecological balance and mucosal barrier permeability, immunosuppression, and oxidative stress through transcellular/paracellular pathways and initiate an excessive systemic inflammatory response. Thereby, recent clinical and preclinical studies focus on the association between sepsis and intestinal barrier dysfunction. This chapter overviews the current knowledge about the molecular basis of BT of the intestine, its role in the progress of sepsis, detection of BT, and actual therapeutic approaches.