© 2018 by Türkiye Klinikleri.Objective: Sleep disorders which is approaching 40% of frequency in the general population, are closely related not only to physical and mental health, but also to work and social life. The lack of iron in children has been shown to cause sleep disturbances due to psychological disturbances and possible restlesslegs syndrome by affecting neurotransmitters. In adults, the number of studies showing an association between anemia and sleep disturbances is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of anemia on sleep quality in 15-49 years old women. Material and Methods: Our study was conducted with a total of 278 female patients aged 15-49 years who had total blood analyses within the last 1 month and had enough socio-cultural level to understand the questions asked. The hemoglobin level under 12 mg/dL was considered as anemia. The socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were analyzed. The general mood of the patients was rated with 10 point likerts cale (1 depressive, 10 very happy). Sleep characteristics were assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The scores above 5 was considered good sleep quality. Results: Anemia was present in 37.8% of the patients. Total PSQI scores were similar in patients with and without anemia (6.5±3.1 vs 6.8±3.8, p=0.758). Anemia frequency was similar among patients with poor sleep and good sleep quality (36.4% vs 39.8%, p=0.559). However, body mass index in patients with poor sleep quality was higher than patients with good sleep quality (p<0.001). Smoking was more prevelant in patients with poor sleep quality (30.5% vs18.6%, p=0.026). Conclusion: Sleep quality is not affected by the presence of anemia. However, higher body mass index, poor general mood and smoking were found to be effective on sleep quality.