The Nobel Prize, which is awarded annually, is open to everyone, regardless of nationality, race, belief or ideology, and winners are announced in October. We evaluated the history of the Nobel prizes for awards that have been awarded in fields related to cancer. The contents of the research and their contribution to oncology were determined and reviewed. There were nine awards directly related to cancer. Only studies thought to be groundbreaking in carcinogenesis and molecular treatment of cancer are included in this review.