Pain perception of patients in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery: A qualitative study using Roy's Adaptation Model


Nursing in Critical Care, vol.29, no.3, pp.512-520, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/nicc.12958
  • Journal Name: Nursing in Critical Care
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.512-520
  • Keywords: cardiac surgery, intensive care unit, pain experiences, qualitative research, Roy's Adaptation Model
  • Kütahya Health Sciences University Affiliated: Yes


Aim: This study was conducted to examine the pain perceptions of intensive care patients after cardiac surgery according to Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM). Study Design: A qualitative design with a phenomenological approach was used in the study. The research data were collected by using a “descriptive information form”, a “semi-structured interview form”, and the “numerical rating scale” through the “in-depth interview method”. The study sample consisted of 16 patients who were aged 18 years or older, had undergone cardiac surgery, experienced pain post-operatively in the intensive care unit at least once, and had intensive care experience. Patients with neuropathic or chronic pain or neurological or psychiatric disorders were not included in the study. Data were classified into physiologic, self-concept, and interdependence modes according to RAM. Results: The themes and sub-themes that emerged included physiologic modes (pain responses), self-concept modes (pain self-management), role-function modes (effects of pain), and interdependence modes (support systems in pain). Conclusions: The results of our study can enable patients and nurses to communicate effectively about pain. In future studies, the effect of model-based pain management programs on cardiac surgery patients can be investigated. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Examining the pain perceptions of intensive care patients after cardiac surgery according to RAM will guide the improvement and development of pain management. It is thought that the model addresses intensive care patients experiencing pain holistically.