The use of monolithic [yttria (Y2O3)-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (ZrO2) polycrystalline] (Y-TZP) ceramics to restore teeth is expanding in dentistry. However, there are still some problems about color matching and the translucency of these ceramics. The employment of Y-TZP ceramics in aesthetically critical regions is questionable due to the insufficient translucency and opacity of the restorations. The objective of this review was to assess the factors affecting the translucency of monolithic Y-TZP ceramics for a better understanding the relevant parameters in restorations. The translucency of polycrystalline ceramics is a complex phenomenon. Apprehending the translucency regarding ceramics requires their knowledge of physical, chemical and microstructural characteristics with the light interactions among them.