Although the overall incidence of pediatric oncological diseases tends to increase over the years, it is among the rare diseases of the pediatric population. The diagnosis, treatment, and healthcare management of this group of diseases are important. Prevention of treatment-related complications is vital for patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Nowadays, the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies in the management of oncological diseases is becoming increasingly important. With the advancement of software technologies, improvements have been made in the early diagnosis of risk groups in oncological diseases, in radiology, pathology, and imaging technologies, in cancer staging and management. In addition, these technologies can be used to predict the outcome in chemotherapy treatment of oncological diseases. In this context, this study identifies artificial intelligence and machine learning methods used in the prediction of complications due to chemotherapeutic agents used in childhood cancer treatment. For this purpose, the concepts of artificial intelligence and machine learning are explained in this review. A general framework for the use of machine learning in healthcare and pediatric oncology has been drawn and examples of studies conducted on this topic in pediatric oncology have been given. Impact Artificial intelligence and machine learning are advanced tools that can be used to predict chemotherapy-related complications. Algorithms can assist clinicians' decision-making processes in the management of complications. Although studies are using these methods, there is a need to increase the number of studies on artificial intelligence applications in pediatric clinics.