Objective: This study was conducted to determine pre-pregnancy fear of childbirth levels and related factors in Turkish and Syrian refugee individuals with no children. Study design: A cross-sectional-descriptive design was used. The study was carried out between September 29 and November 15, 2022 with Turkish and Syrian refugee women with no children who presented to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Polyclinic of a state hospital and their spouses. A total of 545 people, including the spouses of the women who wanted to participate, were included in the study. The data were collected by the researcher in the waiting room of the outpatient clinic by using the face-to-face interview method. A Personal Information Form and the Childbirth Fear-Prior to Pregnancy Scale were used to collect the research data. Results: There was no statistically significant relationship between participants’ culture and their age, education level, employment status, family type, income level, and birth preferences (p > 0.05), and the groups were independent and homogeneous in terms of the specified characteristics. It was determined that Syrian refugee women had a significantly higher total score on the Childbirth Fear-Prior to Pregnancy Scale than Turkish women. Also, the score of Syrian refugee men on the same scale was significantly higher than that of Turkish men. A statistically significant difference was found between the total scores of the Turkish and Syrian participants according to age, education level, and preferred mode of birth. Conclusions: In the current study, it was determined that both genders and cultures had a fear of childbirth, although it was more common in women and Syrian refugees. According to the findings of the study, culture, gender, age, education level, and preferred mode of birth were factors related to childbirth fear prior to pregnancy.