© 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.The aim of our study is to investigate the dose-dependent biological system effect of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoparticles, which is directly produced nanoscale, in vivo. Wistar albino rats (n = 80) weighing 200–250 g were divided into eight groups (n = 10). The acute effects of hBN NPs (i.v) on the rats were investigated by measuring the biochemical, hematological parameters and oxidant-antioxidant status. The results show that no significant change was observed in the hematological and biochemical parameters when the control group and other low dose groups were compared, except for the 1600 and 3200 µg/kg b.w. dose groups. Histological detection indicated that 1600 and 3200 µg/kg hBN NPs treatment could induce significant damage in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen and pancreas. With the findings obtained, it can be seen that hBN NPs cannot be evaluated independently of particle morphology, and that the hBN NPs used in this study may be suitable for biomedical applications where low doses between 50 and 800 µg/kg are not toxic.