This retrospective study aimed to define outcomes and complications of endoscopic versus microscopic transsphenoidal surgery in pituitary adenoma. Data of 94 patients who underwent transsphenoidal endoscopic (n = 45) or microscopic surgery (n = 49) between June 2000 and June 2014 for pituitary adenoma, performed at Katip Celebi University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients' symptomatology, type of adenoma, radiologic findings, surgical outcomes, and preoperative and postoperative complications were investigated. The total subtotal resection rate was 73.4% (69 patients) and partial resection rate was 26.6% (25 patients). Total subtotal resection rate was 77.6% (38 patients) in the microscopic group and 68.9% (31 patients) in the endoscopic group. Total resection was seen more often in the endoscopic group than in the microscopic group, with no significant difference between the groups. Four patients (8.2%) in the microscopic group had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak compared with 3 patients (6.7%) in the endoscopic group. Two patients (2.1%) had hematoma, with 1 patient each in the endoscopic and microscopic group. Panhypopituitarism development rate was higher in the endoscopic group (no significant difference between the 2 groups). One patient (2%) developed blindness in the microscopic group and 1 (2.2%) had meningitis in the endoscopic group. Based on this study, the total resection rate was higher in the microscopic group than in the endoscopic group. However, outcomes and complication rate did not differ significantly between the 2 surgical techniques. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages. Prospective randomized controlled trials should be conducted to compare the 2 surgical methods.