Background: Borderline intelligence function (BIF) and specific learning disorder (SLD) are common diagnoses in children who are brought up for learning problems and school failure. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine whether there were distinctive aspects of cognitive testing routinely used in evaluating SLD and BIF and investigate emotion regulation skills and minor neurologic symptoms. Method: Sixty children (30 SLD and 30 BIF) who are currently attending primary school are selected for study. Visual Aural Digit Span Test - Form B, Gessel Figure Drawing Test, Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Perception Test, WISC-R, Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS) and Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) was administered. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups in cognitive tests. The emotional regulation ability measured by the emotional regulation subscale was better in the SLD group than the BIF group (p = 0.014). In the NES, sensory integration (p = 0.008), motor coordination (p = 0.047) and other (p < 0.001) subscales showed higher scores in the BIF group. Discussion: It has been shown that cognitive tests don't have distinguishing features in the evaluation of SLD and BIF. Emotion regulation subscale score of ERS and sensory integration, motor coordination, and total scores of NES can be used in both discrimination of groups.