Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in the world and about 1 million people die from lung cancer every year in the world. Inflammation is an important factor in the onset, progression and metastasis of lung cancer. The most important regulators of inflammation are chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines induce the proliferation of cancer cells and prevent their apoptosis. Chemokines may indirectly affect tumor growth by inducing growth and release of angiogenic factors from cells in the tumor microenvironment. CXCL12/CXCR4 are chemokine and chemokine receptors predicted to be involved in lung cancer pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the relationship between CXCL12/CXCR4 gene variations and CXCL12 serum levels in disease pathogenesis in lung cancer. For this purpose, DNA samples isolated from 90 lung cancer patients (36 squamous cell carcinomas, 18 small cell carcinomas and 36 adenocarcinomas) and 90 control individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method for CXCL12 (rs1801157) and CXCR4 (rs2228014). CXCL12 protein levels were determined from serum samples by the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results were evaluated using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software and FINNETI program. As a result, there was no significant difference between the genotype frequencies of the CXCL12 rs1801157 variant and the risk of lung cancer (P = 0.396). CXCR4 rs2228014 genotypes were significantly associated with lung cancer risk (P < 0.001). Lung cancer patients had significantly elevated serum CXCL12 levels than controls (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the rs2228014 variants localized on the chemokine receptors CXCR4 gene was found to be closely related to lung cancer risk.