COVID-19 pandemic significantly affects the mental health of the personnel working in the frontline of the healthcare system. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and risk factors in people who served in the emergency health system during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was designed as a cross-sectional online survey conducted on healthcare staff working in emergency services throughout the country between May 15 and June 15, 2020. The questionnaire form consisted of two parts. The first part included sociodemographic questions (13 questions), while the second part consisted of 20 questions found in STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) anxiety. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the potential risk factors for anxiety symptoms in the participants. Relationships between risk factors and their consequences were stated as rates (ORs) and 95% CI. A total 1014 completed the survey. Among the respondents, 54.3% male, 41.3% 18–29 age group, 60.4% married, 44.9% doctors, and 63.4% working in the city center. Analysis showed that anxiety triggering factors included being a female (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.13–1.99; p = 0.004), working as an emergency medical technician (OR, 7.42; 95% CI, 1.09–50.53; p = 0.041), large family (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.06–2.70; p = 0.041), few children (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.84–2.15; p = 0.068), and working in the town center (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06–1.93; p = 0.017). Our results showed that the anxiety level is high for a significant portion of the emergency staff during the pandemic and that risk-enhancing factors exist in their home and work lives during this period. It is important to carry out supportive administrative studies aimed at reducing stress and anxiety levels, especially for the health staff working in the frontline during the pandemic.