What is known and objectiveNucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD 2 are members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family and contain a caspase recruitment domain. NLRs are located in the cytosol, bind bacterial and viral ligands and play a key role in the realization of innate and adaptive immune response, inflammation, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation. Insulin resistance (IR) is a leading cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated with obesity, inflammation and pro-inflammatory responses. NOD1 and NOD2 gene variants may affect the risk of chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and T2DM by shifting the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of our study was to determine whether the NOD1/2 gene variants might contribute to the risk of T2DM and IR.