Laparoscopic surgery techniques have been increasingly preferred to classic laparotomy by surgeons since 1987. However, this method may have some side effects on different intraabdominal organs including kidneys. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of different pressures of CO2 on p53 related apoptosis in kidneys. Totally 24 male rats were divided into four equal groups. CO2 is insufflated into rats' intraabdominal cavity in two different pressures of 10 and 20 mmHg during 1 h. However, in sham group, only cannula was inserted, but no gas was insufflated. After 1 h, 30 min reperfusion was applied. At last, the kidneys were excised and p53 expression and apoptosis were evaluated immunohistochemically. All the data revealed that the number of apoptotic cell in kidney' tubular cells significantly increases in proportion to CO2 pressure level. On the other hand, p53 expression was detected only in the highest pressure. Because the low CO2 pressured group' rats had no p53 expression in kidneys, we suggest that this method can be safely used for abdominal surgery. At the same time, increasing in the number of apoptotic cells parallel to pressure also suggest that CO2 pressure level and application time are very important parameters during CO2 pneumoperitoneum.