Background and aim NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 are members of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, and they contain a caspase recruitment domain (CARD). NLRs are located in the cytosol where they bind bacterial and viral ligands and play a key role in the innate and adaptive immune response, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species generation. NLR gene polymorphisms may shift the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and modulate the risk of infection, chronic inflammation, and cancer. NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphisms may also be associated with altered risks for many cancer types. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential associations between lung cancer and NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms.