© 2023, The Author(s).Introduction: During liver surgery and transplantation, periods of partial or total vascular occlusion are inevitable and result in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Nanomedicine uses the latest technology, which has emerged with interdisciplinary effects, such as biomedical sciences, physics, and engineering, to protect and improve human health. Interdisciplinary research has brought along the introduction of antioxidant nanoparticles as potential therapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of cerium oxide (CeO2) administration and desflurane anesthesia on liver tissue in liver IR injury. Material and methods: Thirty rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (C), ischemia-reperfusion (IR), IR-desflurane (IRD), cerium oxide-ischemia reperfusion (CeO2-IR), and cerium oxide-ischemia reperfusion-desflurane (CeO2-IRD). In the IR, IRD, and CeO2-IRD groups, hepatic ischemia was induced after the porta hepatis was clamped for 120 min, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Intraperitoneal 0.5 mg/kg CeO2 was administered to the CeO2 groups 30 min before ischemia. Desflurane (6%) was administered to the IRD and CeO2-IRD groups during IR. All groups were sacrificed under anesthesia. Liver tissue samples were examined under a light microscope by staining with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and arylesterase (ARE) enzyme activities were measured in the tissue samples. Results: The IR group had considerably more hydropic degeneration, sinusoidal dilatation, and parenchymal mononuclear cell infiltration than the IRD, CeO2-IR, and CeO2-IRD groups. Catalase and GST enzyme activity were significantly higher in the CeO2-IR group than in the IR group. The MDA levels were found to be significantly lower in the IRD, CeO2-IR, and CeO2-IRD groups than in the IR group. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal CeO2 with desflurane reduced oxidative stress and corrected liver damage.