Uslu S., Kar F.

Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi, vol.11, no.1, pp.1-6, 2018 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Journal Name: Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Other Indexes
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-6
  • Kütahya Health Sciences University Affiliated: No


Cell-cell signaling mechanisms of multicellular organisms regulate human development during embryogenesis and control homeostasis in adult tissues. These are vital mechanisms for human health. Perturbation of cell-cell signaling is involved in many pathologies, including cancer. Semaphorins are secretory, transmembrane, and GPI-associated proteins that have significant roles in various tissues. They are known as extracellular signal proteins, which are essential for the development and maintenance of many organs and tissues. Semaphorin cell guidance cues and their common plexin receptors elaborate on the mechanical principles of the cell-cell signaling system. Previous studies have shown that semaphorins act as axon directing molecules. It is understood that semaphorins are key regulators of morphology and motility in many different types of cells, including nervous, cardiovascular, immunological, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive, respiratory, musculoskeletal as well as cancer cells and metabolism forming cells. Semaphorin signaling predominantly occurs via plexin receptors. Recent studies have revealed the important functions of the semaphorin-plexin system in mammalian physiology. The common feature of semaphorin functional mechanisms is that they alter the organization of cytoskeletons, actin filaments, and microtubule networks. Exciting studies continue to show how semaphorin signaling is regulated by different receptor complexes and other mechanisms to achieve specific results in various cells and physiological systems, although much information is being learned about the mechanisms behind the effects of semaphorins, which are about twenty years of research history. In this review, molecular structures of semaphorins, receptors, their role in diseases and treatment protocols are summarized.