We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Twenty-one adult male rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IL-18BP. Proinflammatory cytokines were determined in rat blood samples by using ELISA, while apoptosis was immunohistochemically evaluated in spinal cord tissue using caspase 3. Both IL-18 and TNF-alpha were significantly decreased in the IL-18BP group compared to that in the sham group. The highest caspase 3 levels were observed in the I/R group, while the lowest levels were found in the sham group. The mean Tarlov score of the I/R group was significantly lower than that of the sham group. However, the mean Tarlov score of the IL-18BP group was significantly higher than that of the I/R group. The results of the current study demonstrate that IL-18BP plays both anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic roles in spinal cord I/R injury.