© 2022 Elsevier LtdConsidering the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, the number of weight control drugs is very few. Incretin-based therapies are currently being developed to achieve weight control, and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (GLP-1RA) are used in incretin-based therapies. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of exenatide, a GLP-1A, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the effect of exenatide on the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, insulin and glucose levels, and apoptosis. Cytotoxic activity of exenatide on 3T3-L1 adipocytes was determined by MTT method. Gene expression levels were determined by qPCR. Apoptosis studies were performed on the Muse Cell Analyzer. C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) expression levels were found to be higher in exenatide treated adipocyte cells than in control cells (p < 0.001). Adipocyte cells treated with exenatide were found to have lower PPAR-γ gene expression levels when compared to control adipocyte cells (p < 0.001). Intracellular insulin (p < 0.001) and glucose levels were higher in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with exenatide compared to control adipocyte cells. Total apoptosis increased approximately 1.5 times as a result of exenatide administration. The increase in CTRP3 gene expression, which is thought to be a new biomarker for obesity, and the decrease in PPAR-γ gene expression indicate that exenatide is a promising new pharmacotherapeutic agent in the treatment of obesity by regulating the expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis and inducing apoptosis.