Lipoma is an uncommon benign tumor of the alimentary tract and its overall incidence is 4.1%, but that of the esophagus is extremely rare, with an incidence of only 0.4%. We present a case of esophageal lipoma. A 55-year-old man had a two-year history of dysphagia and odynophagia. Upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy showed a mass in the wall of the esophagus, occupying the lumen, and causing obstruction. Computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography were performed because of endoscopic suspicion of submucosal tumor, and the mass was confirmed to be a lipoma in the wall of the esophagus. It was removed surgically by a thoracic approach. His symptoms resolved after the operation. Surgical excision by enucleation of the tumor is the preferred treatment of esophageal lipoma, but opening of the esophageal mucosa during this procedure is a rare cause for esophageal resection.