Cyclophosphamide stimulates endoplasmic reticulum stress and induces apoptotic cell death in human glioblastoma cell lines

Oztatlici M., Oztatlici H., Saygili S. K., KAYA İ., CİNGÖZ İ. D.

Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, vol.65, no.1, pp.27-33, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 65 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.47162/rjme.65.1.04
  • Journal Name: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.27-33
  • Keywords: apoptosis, Cyclophosphamide, eIF2α, ER stress, glioblastoma, GRP78
  • Kütahya Health Sciences University Affiliated: No


Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent commonly used in cancer treatments. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 4-Hydroperoxy cyclophosphamide (4-HC), which is active form of CP, on glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), phospho-protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (p-PERK), phospho-inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (p-IRE1α), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), and caspase-3 messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and proteins that play roles in the ER stress pathway and apoptosis in U87 and T98 human glioblastoma cell lines. U87 and T98 human glioblastoma cell lines were divided into control and 4-HC-treated groups. Cell viability assay was used to detect the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for 24 hours of 4-HC. Immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were used to evaluate the levels of proteins and their mRNAs. The IC50 values of U87 and T98 cells were calculated as 15.67±0.58 μM and 19.92±1 μM, respectively. The levels of GRP78, ATF6, p-PERK, p-IRE1α, eIF2α, and caspase-3 protein expressions in the 4-HC-treated group compared to that in the control group. These increased protein expressions also were correlated with the mRNA levels. The ER stress signal pathway could be active in 4-HC-induced cell death. Further studies of ER-related stress mechanisms in anticancer treatment would be important for effective therapeutic strategies.