Objective: The goal of this research was to determine whether cerium oxide could protect against kidney tissue damage in rats given sevoflurane anesthesia. Material and Methods: After the approval of the Ethics Committee, study was conducted in Gazi University Animal Research Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey, in April 2019. 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control group (C), cerium oxide group (CO), sevoflurane group (S), and cerium oxide-sevoflurane group (COS). 0.5 mg/kg doses of intraperitoneal cerium oxide was administered to the CO and COS groups 30 minutes before the procedure. Sevoflurane (2.3%) was administered to the S and COS groups for 3 hours. Histopathological and biochemical parameters were then analyzed. Results: Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significantly higher in group S than in group C and CO. On the other hand, MDA level and SOD activity were significantly lower in group COS than in group S. Tubular dilatations markedly increased in group S and COS compared to group C (p=0.002, p=0.009, respectively). Tubular dilatation was also significantly higher in group S than in group CO. Tubular cell necrosis were significantly higher in all groups than in group C. Tubular cell necrosis was also significantly higher in group S compared to group CO. Bowman's space dilatations were significantly higher in groups S and COS compared to the C group. Bowman's space dilatation was also significantly higher in group S than in group CO. Tubular cell shedding was significantly higher in group S compared to group C and CO. Tubular cell necrosis and cell shedding were found to be significantly lower in group COS than in group S. Conclusion: We conclude that pretreatment of rats with a single intraperitoneal dose of cerium oxide nanoparticles is safe to prevent kidney damage caused by sevoflurane anesthesia in rats.