Investigation of the Gastroprotective Effect of Betaine-Homocysteine Homeostasis on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Apoptosis in Ethanol-Induced Ulcer Model

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Çakır Gündoğdu A., Kar F., Özbayer C.

JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE SURGERY, vol.35, no.12-12, pp.1806-1817, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 12-12
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/08941939.2022.2126566
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EBSCO Legal Collection, EBSCO Legal Source, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.1806-1817
  • Keywords: Apoptosis, betaine, homocysteine, gastric ulcer, inflammation, oxidative stress
  • Kütahya Health Sciences University Affiliated: Yes


ABSTRACT Background: There is a growing interest in the use of natural compounds for the treatment of gastric ulcers. The multifunctional roles of betaine in various diseases make this natural substance a favorable pre-drug for ulcer treatment. This study aims to determine the competence of betaine in gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and to explore underlying mechanisms considering its effects on liver and kidney activity and blood parameters. Methods: Wistar albino rats were orally treated with vehicle (distilled water) or betaine (250mg/ kg) for twenty-one days and then ulcer formation was induced by ingestion of 75% ethanol. Gastric mucosal damage was evaluated by gross examination and histopathological analysis. Homocysteine levels, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TAS), antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, routine biochemical tests were performed and hematological parameters were analyzed. Results: Betaine ameliorated any gastric mucosal damage and reduced homocysteine levels significantly. The TOS and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased while the TAS, glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity were increased upon the betaine treatment. Betaine reduced apoptosis by regulating Bax and Bcl-2 levels, however, it did not alter inflammatory mediators. Additionally, betaine improved serum potassium (K+) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, whereas it increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and impaired hematological parameters. Conclusions: Altogether, these data illustrated that betaine exhibits a gastroprotective effect against ulcers through the homocysteine pathway by modulating oxidative stress in the gastric tissue; however, its systemic effects should not be ignored.