An investigation of immunopathogenetic mechanisms of obesity-associated asthma may demonstrate novel therapeutic targets. The aim of this study was to compare levels of T-helper lymphocyte (Th)1, Th2, regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg), and Th17 cytokines secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture (PBMC) in response to nonspecific stimulation in obese and nonobese children with asthma. Obese and nonobese children with asthma aged 5-16 were enrolled into this case-control study consecutively. Age at asthma diagnosis and clinical severity were recorded. A skin prick test was performed. Serum adipokine levels and PBMC supernatant interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, IL-23, interferon (IFN), and transforming growth factor (TGF)- levels were measured. Mean (+/- standard deviation) ages of obese (n=28) and nonobese (n=39) children with asthma were 8.7 +/- 2.9 and 10.5 +/- 3.2, respectively. Asthma symptom score was higher, and age at asthma diagnosis was lower in obese compared with nonobese children with asthma (P=0.03 and P=0.004, respectively). Leptin levels were significantly higher in obese than in nonobese asthma group (P<0.001). IL-10 and IL-17 levels in obese group were significantly lower than in nonobese group (P=0.005 and P=0.017, respectively). On the other hand, TGF- levels were significantly higher in obese compared with nonobese children with asthma (P=0.015). IL-4, IL-23, and IFN levels were not significantly different between the groups (P<0.05 for all). Low IL-10 and high TGF- levels in obese compared with nonobese children with asthma might indicate lower anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and Treg function as well as a higher remodeling process in obesity-associated asthma in children.