Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the knowledge and treatment approaches related to endodontic treatment (ET), and the use of new techniques and materials during treatments between general dentists (GD) and endodontists. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with endodontists and GDs working in Turkey. The questionnaire consisted of 30 multiple-choice questions divided into three main categories, including demographic information, general approach to ET, and root canal treatment (RCT) procedures. The obtained data were analyzed using the chi-square test (p<0.05). Results: A total of 454 completed questionnaires were collected from a total of 750 distributed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 60.5%. Most of the respondents (56.8%) reported performing more than 20 RCTs per week. Approximately 60% of the respondents stated that they never used rubber-dam isolation during ET. It was determined that 89.1% of GDs did not use any magnification system during ET (p<0.001). The great majority of the respondents (95.4%) reported using sodium hypochlorite as a primary irrigant. Endodontists used rotary systems more than GDs (p<0.05). Conclusion: Endodontists and GDs take different approaches to ET, and endodontists use new techniques and materials more often than GDs. The results of this study point to the importance and necessity of continuous education programs to encourage the use of new systems and techniques in endodontics.