Background and Aim: Postoperative neurologic deficit is the most devastating complication after surgical thoracic aorta repair. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage and some medications are used for spinal cord protection during and after the operation. Methods: A 25-year-old patient applied to our clinic with a traumatic descending aortic aneurysm. We performed a surgical repair for the aneurysm but could not achieve to place a lumbar catheter to provide cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Levosimendan was chosen for spinal cord ischemic preconditioning because of its vasodilatory effects. Results: Postoperative course was uneventful. Hemodynamic and neurologic complication was not observed, and the patient was discharged from the hospital in the postoperative 5th day. Conclusions: Levosimendan can be used for preconditioning and spinal cord protection from ischemic injury during descending aorta repair. We clearly benefit from the vasodilator peculiarity of the drug for improving spinal cord perfusion.