Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the primary cause of death worldwide. Vaspin was a recently described adipokine, playing a protective role in many metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the relation of serum vaspin levels and vaspin rs2236242 polymorphisms with CAD. The study included 105 healthy subjects and 105 CAD patients. Serum vaspin concentrations and vaspin rs2236242 polymorphisms were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the genotypes of CAD patients (TT 26.7%, TA 71.4%, and AA 1.9%) and controls (TT 70.5%, TA 28.6%, and AA 1%;chi(2) = 40.3;df = 2;p = .000). The TA genotype increased the risk of CAD (odds ratio [OR] = 6.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.60-12.1;p = .000) as compared to the TT genotype. There was a statistically significant difference between the allelic distribution of CAD patients (T 62.4% and A 37.6%) and controls (T 84.8% and A 15.2%;chi(2) = 27.0;df = 1;p = .000). Those carrying the A allele had a higher risk of CAD compared to those with the T allele (OR = 3.35; 95% CI = 2.10-5.36;p = .000). The serum vaspin concentrations of the patients with TT, TA, and AA genotypes were 30.4 +/- 1.72, 28.4 +/- 2.89, and 36.4 +/- 6.38 pg/ml, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the serum vaspin levels and vaspin genotypes (p = .696). All of the above suggested that the vaspin rs2236242 polymorphism was associated with CAD in the Turkish population.