Assessments of energy, macro and micronutrient intakes in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

ÖZKAYA V., Ozgen Ozkaya S.

Marmara Medical Journal, vol.36, no.2, pp.235-241, 2023 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.5472/marumj.1307977
  • Journal Name: Marmara Medical Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.235-241
  • Keywords: Adolescents, Children, Dietary Intake, Macronutrient Distribution, Nutritional Status, Type 1 Diabetes
  • Kütahya Health Sciences University Affiliated: No


Objective: This study aims at examining dietary intake in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and comparing the results with national dietary intake recommendations. Patients and Methods: One hundred fifty children and adolescents (52.7% female) with an average age of 12.2±3.1 years and with type 1 DM who were followed by the Pediatric Endocrinology Polyclinic participated in the study. Three-day food intake records and clinical information regarding the type 1 DM condition of the participants were obtained. Results: No gender-related significant difference was found among the participants regarding food intake. The percentage of energy derived from fat (average 39.6%) and saturated fat (16.1%) were higher than the recommended levels in both gender groups. The percentage of energy derived from carbohydrates (female 44.1±5.7%, male 43.0±6.8%) was below the recommended levels. The dietary fiber intake in children aged 6-10 years with type 1 DM met recommendations, whereas, it was below the recommended levels in other age groups. Micronutrient inadequacy was common in children and adolescents with type 1 DM. Conclusions: The authors believe that guidelines and programs are needed for children and adolescents with type 1 DM to reduce total fat and saturated fat intake, increase carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake up to the recommended levels, and prevent multiple micronutrient inadequacies.