Visceral Leishmaniasis in A Patient Presenting with Fever of Unknown Origin: A Case Report From a Low-endemic Region of Turkey

Jaiteh M. B., ÇALIK BAŞARAN N., ÖZIŞIK L., Akman O., Hasanlı N., Tortop S., ...More

Turkiye parazitolojii dergisi, vol.43, no.4, pp.210-212, 2019 (Scopus) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.4274/tpd.galenos.2019.6362
  • Journal Name: Turkiye parazitolojii dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.210-212
  • Keywords: fever of unknown origin, pancytopenia, Visceral leishmaniasis
  • Kütahya Health Sciences University Affiliated: No


Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Even though cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form, visceral leishmaniasis is associated with high mortality. The case presented herein is a 39 year-old bed-ridden female who presented with fever of unknown origin, tachypnea and pancytopenia. She was initially misdiagnosed as having autoimmune pancytopenia elsewhere and treated with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. She had also received wide-spectrum antibiotics for febrile neutropenia. We performed a leishmania rK39 dipstick test which turned out to be positive along with visualisation of amastigote forms of leishmania on bone marrow biopsy. Thus, we made a diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis and treated her with liposomal amphotericin B. Her clinical course was complicated by respiratory failure necessitating invasive mechanical ventilation. She responded well to treatment and was later extubated, shortly before being discharged. At 6 months of follow-up, no sign of recurrence was observed.