© 2021 John Wiley & Sons LtdWhat is known and objective: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a multigenic disease that develops with impaired β-cell function and insulin sensitivity and has a high prevalence worldwide. A cause often postulated for type 2 diabetes is chronic inflammation. It has been suggested that inflammatory regulators can inhibit insulin signal transduction and that inflammation is involved in insulin resistance (IR) and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. In this direction, we aimed to investigate the gene variants of MyD88 (rs1319438, rs199396), IRAK4 (rs1461567, rs4251513, rs4251559) and TRAF6 (rs331455, rs331457) and serum levels of COX-2, NF-κB, iNOS in T2DM and IR. Methods: The MyD88, IRAK4 and TRAF6 variations were genotyped in 100 newly diagnosed T2DM patients and 100 non-diabetic individuals using The MassARRAY® Iplex GOLD SNP genotyping method. The COX-2, iNOS and NF-κB levels were measured in serum samples with the sandwich-ELISA method. Results were analysed using SPSS Statistics software and the online FINNETI program. Results and discussion: In our study, a total of the 7 variants in the MyD88, IRAK4 and TRAF6 genes were genotyped, and as a result, no relationship was found between most of these variants and the risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance (p > 0.05). Only, the rs1461567 variant of the IRAK4 gene was significant in the heterozygous model (CC vs. CT), and the CT genotype was most frequent in diabetic individuals compared with the non-diabetics (p = 0.033). Additionally, COX-2 and iNOS levels were found to be associated with diabetes and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). What is new and conclusion: Our results show that high COX-2 and iNOS levels are associated with T2DM, besides MyD88, IRAK4 and TRAF6 gene variations may not be closely related to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Nevertheless, studies in this pathway with a different population and a large number of patients are important.