6th Congress of Romanian Rhinologic Society, Bucuresti, Romania, 08 September 2021
NON-ALLERGIC RHINITIS IN CHILDREN
Nurullah Ture1, Cemal Cingi2
1Kutahya Health Science University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kutahya, Turkey
2Eskisehir Osmangazi University, ENT Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Eskisehir, Turkey
Introduction: This review aims to provide correct diagnosis and treatment management in children presenting with rhinitis symptoms by focusing on non-allergic rhinitis in children. We aim to convey our current knowledge of this diagnosis to otolaryngologists, especially rhinologists.
Methods: General and clinical features of non-allergic rhinitis in children were evaluated with current literature data.
Results: Rhinitis is classifias allergic and non-allergic according to the pathological mechanism. In about half of all rhinitis cases, the causative agent has been blamed as an allergy. It is not uncommon for two tables to overlap. In terms of complaints, there is no sig- nified difference between allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. For this reason, the majority of pediatric patients presenting with rhinitis are diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. Treatment management is carried out according to this diagnosis. Studies on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of non-allergic rhinitis in children are generally based on data obtained from adult patients. For these reasons, there are difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of non-allergic rhinitis in children. Diagnosis of non-allergic rhinitis in children is diffi due to differences of opinion in the classifition of different forms of non-al- lergic rhinitis and the lack of clear pathophysiology. Because of this problem, the diagnosis of non-allergic rhinitis is made clinically.
There are forms with different etiologies and pathophysiologies under the term non-allergic rhinitis, such as non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome, infectious rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, and atrophic rhinitis.
Environmental irritants, foreign bodies in the nose, thyroid disorders, adenoid hypertrophy, rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps,immotile cilia syndrome, granuloma, immunodeficiency diseases, cystic fiosis, and reflmay also cause the disease. Other causes of non-allergic rhinitis in children are effective eon infectious rhinitis, complaints of runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. Generally, it is observed that the complaints disappear within the fiweek, and mostly, the causative agents are rhinoviruses. In NARES, the symptomatology of the disease and response to treatment is similar to allergic rhinitis, but unlike high IgE antibodies are not observed. An overreaction of the nasal mucosa characterizes vasomotor rhinitis to physical stimuli. In vasomotor rhinitis, intermittent nasal congestion and nasal discharge are observed. There is a signifi increase in complaints, especially after exposure to air pollution and cold air. Atrophic rhinitis is a rare clinical condition that begins with puberty and results in slow and progressive nasal mucosa atrophy. Nasal crusting and unpleasant odor are typical. Chronic rhinitis complaints signifiaffect the quality of life of the child and can affect the family order. It causes sleep problems and fatigue in children. The method to reduce this diffiis to increase knowledge on this subject and conduct extensive research in this area. Rhinologists will continue to be at the forefront of diagnosing and treating non-allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients.
Conclusion: It cannot be emphasized enough that understanding the nuances of rhinitis in children will lead to a suitable treatment method. This information is essential for otolaryngologists, especially rhinologists, who undertake thetreatment of pediatric patients.